By inserting three resistors or inductors of appropriate value in series with the motor, the starting current can be reduced by any desired extent, but only at the expense of a disproportionate reduction in starting torque.
For example, if the current is reduced to half its DOL value, the motor voltage will be halved, so the torque (which is proportional to the square of the voltage - see later) will be reduced to only 25% of its DOL value. This approach is thus less attractive in terms of torque per ampere of supply current than the star/delta method. One attractive feature, however, is that as the motor speed increases and its effective impedance rises, the volt drop across the extra impedance reduces, so the motor voltage rises progressively with the speed, thereby giving more torque. When the motor is up to speed, the added impedance is shorted-out by means of a contactor. Variable-resistance starters (manually or motor operated) are sometimes used with small motors where a smooth jerk-free start is required, for example in film or textile lines.
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